CSTE Position Statement(s)
- Parotitis, acute salivary gland swelling, orchitis, or oophoritis unexplained by another more likely diagnosis, OR
- A positive lab result with no mumps clinical symptoms (with or without epidemiological-linkage to a confirmed or probable case).
- Acute parotitis or other salivary gland swelling lasting at least 2 days, or orchitis or oophoritis unexplained by another more likely diagnosis, in:
- A person with a positive test for serum anti-mumps immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, OR
- A person with epidemiologic linkage to another probable or confirmed case or linkage to a group/community defined by public health during an outbreak of mumps.
- A positive mumps laboratory confirmation for mumps virus with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or culture in a patient with an acute illness characterized by any of the following:
- Acute parotitis or other salivary gland swelling, lasting at least 2 days
- Aseptic meningitis
- Hearing loss
Internationally imported case: An internationally imported case is defined as a case in which mumps results from exposure to mumps virus outside the United States as evidenced by at least some of the exposure period (12–25 days before onset of parotitis or other mumps-associated complications) occurring outside the United States and the onset of parotitis or other mumps-associated complications within 25 days of entering the United States and no known exposure to mumps in the U.S. during that time. All other cases are considered U.S.-acquired cases.
U.S.-acquired case: A U.S.-acquired case is defined as a case in which the patient had not been outside the United States during the 25 days before onset of parotitis or other mumps-associated complications or was known to have been exposed to mumps within the United States.
U.S.-acquired cases are sub-classified into four mutually exclusive groups:
- Import-linked case: Any case in a chain of transmission that is epidemiologically linked to an internationally imported case.
- Imported-virus case: A case for which an epidemiologic link to an internationally imported case was not identified but for which viral genetic evidence indicates an imported mumps genotype, i.e., a genotype that is not occurring within the United States in a pattern indicative of endemic transmission. An endemic genotype is the genotype of any mumps virus that occurs in an endemic chain of transmission (i.e., lasting ≥12 months). Any genotype that is found repeatedly in U.S.-acquired cases should be thoroughly investigated as a potential endemic genotype, especially if the cases are closely related in time or location.
- Endemic case: A case for which epidemiological or virological evidence indicates an endemic chain of transmission. Endemic transmission is defined as a chain of mumps virus transmission continuous for ≥12 months within the United States.
- Unknown source case: A case for which an epidemiological or virological link to importation or to endemic transmission within the U.S. cannot be established after a thorough investigation. These cases must be carefully assessed epidemiologically to assure that they do not represent a sustained U.S.-acquired chain of transmission or an endemic chain of transmission within the U.S.
With previous contact with mumps virus either through vaccination (particularly with 2 doses) or natural infection, serum mumps IgM test results may be negative; immunoglobulin G (IgG) test results may be positive at initial blood draw; and viral detection in RT-PCR or culture may have low yield if the buccal swab is collected too long after parotitis onset.
Therefore, mumps cases should not be ruled out by negative laboratory results. Serologic tests should be interpreted with caution, as false positive and false negative results are possible with IgM tests.
States may also choose to classify cases as "out-of-state-imported" when imported from another state in the United States. For national reporting, however, cases will be classified as either internationally imported or U.S-acquired.
1. Schluter WW, Reef SE, Dykewicz DA, Jennings CE. Pseudo-Outbreak of Mumps--Illinois, 1995 [Abstract]. in: Program and Abstracts of the 30th National Immunization Conference, Washington, DC, April 9-12, 1996