Streptococcus pneumoniae causes many clinical syndromes, depending on the site of infection (e.g., acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, or meningitis). Starting in 2000, a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for prevention of pneumococcal disease in the pediatric population.
Laboratory Criteria For Diagnosis
Isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or, less commonly, joint, pleural, or pericardial fluid)
A clinically compatible case in a child less than 5 years of age caused by laboratory-confirmed culture of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site