Zika Virus Disease, Non-congenital Infection and Zika Virus, Congenital Infection | CDC

NOTE: A surveillance case definition is a set of uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. Surveillance case definitions enable public health officials to classify and count cases consistently across reporting jurisdictions. Surveillance case definitions are not intended to be used by healthcare providers for making a clinical diagnosis or determining how to meet an individual patient’s health needs.

CSTE Position Statement(s)

  • 16-ID-01 Interim

Subtype(s)

  • Zika virus disease, non-congenital infection
  • Zika virus, congenital infection

Background

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging infection spread by mosquito vectors and whose incidence and prevalence has exploded in the Americas in 2015. Preliminary investigations demonstrate vertical transmission of ZIKV to the fetus in pregnant women. These in utero infections have been associated with the potential for devastating outcomes including microcephaly and spontaneous abortions. There is also an association with ZIKV infection and post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) under investigation. Because of these epidemiological and clinical features, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV disease a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the International Health Regulations 2005 on February 1, 2016.

ZIKV, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes, was discovered in the Zika Forest by the Virus Research Institute in Uganda in a non-human primate in 1947 and from Aedes africanus mosquitoes in 1948. In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Since that time, local transmission has been reported in many other countries and territories in Latin America and the Caribbean. Brazil reported widespread ZIKV disease in adults and children, and a concomitant and significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly, as well as increases in miscarriages.

Subtype(s) Case Definition

Comments

Office of Management and Budget approval of the NNDSS Revision, 0920-0728 on January 21, 2016, authorized CDC to receive case notifications for Zika virus disease, non-congenital infection and Zika virus, congenital infection.

The ‘Zika virus disease, non-congenital infection’ and ‘Zika virus, congenital infection’ case definitions are based on CSTE Interim Position Statement 16-ID-01, which was approved by the CSTE Executive Board in February 2016. This Interim case definition was revised and replaced with a new case definition CSTE approved in June 2016.

Related Case Definition(s)

Page last reviewed: April 16, 2021